What is Preimplantation Genetic Screening?
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is a test done as part of the In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) process where a small sample of cells is taken from the embryo and analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities. Normally, human cells carry 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. PGS is used to detect aneuploidies – or abnormalities in chromosome numbers. Aneuploidies can lead to a variety of pregnancy complications including miscarriage, failure of the embryo to implant, or the birth of a baby with a genetic disorder. The probability of forming aneuploid embryos increases with maternal age. Perhaps the most common and well-known example of an aneuploidy is Trisomy 21 or Down Syndrome, in which patients carry an extra copy of chromosome 21. The goal of PGS is to identify embryos with normal sets of healthy chromosomes to improve a patient’s chance for a successful pregnancy. Our laboratory uses a technique called chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) to analyze our patients’ embryos.
Benefits of Preimplantation Genetic Screening:
There are many benefits of having a Preimplantation Genetic Screening. Women over the age of 35 with recurrent pregnancy loss and carriers of genetic or chromosomal disorders can avoid the risk of passing on a genetic disease or condition. It improves the success rate of In Vitro Fertilization as it avoids the transfer of embryos that may lead to a miscarriage or the birth of children with a variety of syndromes. In addition, PGS also improves embryo selection for those who want to select the gender of their baby. Varying from patient to patient, it will be determined whether a PGS is appropriate based on the patient’s age, medical history, and condition.